|Whenever a logical fallacy is committed, the fallacy has its roots in Agrippa's trilemma which is simply the fact that the foundation of all human thought (without Divine revelation) is based on one of three unhappy possibilities. These three possibilities are infinite regression, circular reasoning, or bare assertions without any evidence.
Fallacies of Presumption, Bare Assertion, and Lies (using no evidence at all)
In the Secular worldview, there can be no deductive reasoning because of Agrippa's Trilemma. For this reason, there is always some form of presumption, bare assertion, or lie in every purely secular argument.
- Logical Fallacy of Ipse dixit /Just Because Fallacy / Trust Me / Mother Knows Best Fallacy / Because I Said So / You'll See: occurs when an arbitrary dogmatic statement is made and the speaker/writer expects the listener/reader to accept it as valid without conclusive evidence
- Logical Fallacy of Unsupported Assertion / Alleged Certainty / Appeal to Common Sense / Bare assertion / Unprovable Statement / Groundless Claim: occurs when an assertion is made without any support or evidence for the assertion or any attempt to provide a reason. This is especially true when the statement makes the conclusion appear certain when, in fact, it is not. EXAMPLE “Theology is a study with no answers because it has no subject matter.” What is funny about this fallacy is that this quote appears in various sources that purport to be teaching logic. How can students learn logic when those who are trying to teach logic are themselves disabled by their own presuppositions. The presupposition here is the presupposition of either Agnosticism or Atheism. Both of these are self-refuting. They both depend on the logical fallacy known as universal negative. Dogmatic believers in Atheism/Agnosticism have pat answers for defending the fallacy of universal negative, but their pat answers are themselves fallacious.
- Secret Knowledge: occurs when knowledge is claimed that is only given to a certain person or group of persons, and there is no way that anyone else can check it out this secret knowledge. EXAMPLE Gnosticism FALLACY ABUSE Sandy: “You are claiming that God reveals to you that the Bible is His Word without error, and then He speaks to you through the Bible? That’s secret knowledge. I can’t check it out.” Rocky: “On the contrary, it is available to every person. Here is how you check it out. Just open your mind to Jesus Christ, sincerely, with respect, a will to obey Him, and persistence. Pray—just tell Him that you want Him to set you free from sin and you want to have the power to obey Him. You want to be cleansed. Ask Him to teach you and lead you. He will reveal the same things to you.” Sandy: “I’m not going to do that. I’m not having God telling me what to do.”
- Allness Fallacy: occurs when statements are made that imply totality, finality, or unequivocal certainty beyond what we can know. EXAMPLE “Evolution [meaning, molecules-to-man] is a fact.”
- Autistic Certainty: occurs when certainty is alleged based on the fact that the person believes it. This is a form of alleged certainty that gives a reason for the belief. However, it is circular in that the belief is based on the belief. It may include some sort of appeal to authority. "I would not believe something unless it is true. I believe X. Therefore, X is true." EXAMPLE A blog post: “We most assuredly do not know that life began due to chance. We know that natural selection can drive toward increasing complexity when the increased complexity provides a survival value. When viewed retrospectively, the evolutionary sequence looks determined – but this is not evidence of any design, natural or supernatural. Looked at retrospectively, your existence is the result of numerous chance events: millions of bondings between specific individual ova and sperms; any broken link in the chain and you would not exist.” Reading this paragraph, one wonders whether there is anything that this person doesn't know. There are many fallacies in this little paragraph, one being unsupported assertion. The odds against life starting by chance are astronomical--that's if you don't know Christ. If you know Christ personally and are taught by Him, He reveals to you that this entire paragraph is a lie. He created the first life, and He directly saw to it that you would be born. In fact, He knew you before you were born. The reason we know this is by Divine revelation, not by unsupported assertion.
- Counterfactual Fallacy / Logical Fallacy of the Outright Lie / Assertion Contrary to Fact / Lie / Untruth: occurs whenever an outright lie is used as a premise or just put forward as a conclusion without any premise, when statements are made or hypothesis are put forward that are contrary to known facts. Claims are made that cannot be true based on what we already know. EXAMPLE "The big-bang-billions-of-years-molecules-to-man story has no problem with the Second Law of Thermodynamics because the Second Law of Thermodynamics only operates in closed systems, and the Earth is an open system since the Sun is pouring in energy constantly, which causes the mutations that lead to information being added to cells" This has several assertions contrary to fact. Molecules to man is scientifically impossible because of The Second Law of Thermodynamics. The Second Law of Thermodynamics was developed theoretically using the example of a closed system, but it operates in all systems. If it didn't operate on Earth, life as we know it could not exist. The kind of information, known as universal information, have never been observed being added to anything by natural means. Every mutation observed to date has be a loss of Universal Information. EXAMPLE "I'm a good person." We know, by revelation, that there is not a just man on the Earth who does good and doesn't sin. God's standard for righteousness is the only one that counts, and God demands absolute perfection. No one can meet this high standard. God has a plan to get us out of this mess. He speaks about it though the Bible. EXAMPLE Lock Haven University Website: “The proofs of the existence of a god are pathetic attempts to justify an emotional commitment to a fantasy that is logically and scientifically impossible to prove. Once this fact is appreciated, all of these proofs of a god are seen to be totally empty of content.” The choice of the language is an outright lie, an appeal to emotion, and a question-begging epithet. It is also an attempt to prove a universal negative, which is a fallacy in itself. However, the reason that we (those who follow Christ) know God exists is because we know Jesus Christ personally. He leads us. We are learning to discern His Voice from all other voices, including the voices of our own fallen and deceitful mind. In other words, we know that He exists by Divine revelation. Therefore, this statement on the Lock Haven University website is a statement contrary to fact, and it is a statement filled with negative emotion. The writer may think that the web page is reasonable, however, it commits many fallacies, not the least of which is a fallacy of amazing familiarity.
- Misrepresenting the Facts: occurs when a premise is based incorrect information. It is a fallacy of misrepresentation. The straw man fallacy is also a fallacy of misrepresentation, but it misrepresents what someone else has said or what they stand for. The misrepresentation of facts fallacy affects the premises because the facts the are behind the premises are misrepresented. All misrepresenting the facts fallacies are counterfactual fallacies, but some counterfactual fallacies affect the premises and some counterfactual fallacies are given without any premises.
- Big Lie Technique / Staying on Message: occurs when a lie is confidently told in spite of all evidence against it. It helps to have the media (or a group of people in the corporate structure) who will repeat what you say as if it were truth. This is the counterfactual fallacy with political savvy and purposeful deception. EXAMPLE We see a lot of this in politics. EXAMPLE The debate mindset coupled with Post Modern morality leads to debaters saying whatever it takes to "win." The trouble is that the winner loses all.
- Appeal to Confidence: occurs when personal inner belief is the reason for believing. This is quite different from the kind of faith that God speaks of through the Bible, the faith of God. The faith of God comes when God speaks into the innermost mind. This is the opposite of believing because of conditioning. EXAMPLE “Why would you believe that God created the Universe when the scientific explanation [the Big-Bang-Billions-of-Years-No-Flood-Molecules-to-Man story (BBBoYNFMtM)] is much more compelling?” It (BBBoYNFMtM) is compelling because it is believed. It (BBBoYNFMtM) is believed because it is believed. It (BBBoYNFMtM) isn’t based on scientific method, that is, observation. It (BBBoYNFMtM) is based on interpretation, that is, stories.
- Logical Fallacy of Hypothesis Contrary to Fact / Argumentum Ad Speculum / Speculative Fallacy / "What If" Fallacy / Wouldchuck: occurs when a hypothesis is put forward but the hypothesis cannot be true. This is often connected with a meaningless question. EXAMPLE "What if you died and found out that there was no afterlife, then what would you do?"
- Logical Fallacy of False Prophecy / Argument to the Future: occurs when someone proclaims something to be true, especially some future event. They may claim divine inspiration, but, much more often, they just claim common sense. EXAMPLE "We do not yet have the answer to how the big bang could have happened or what was there before the big bang from which the big bang came, but science will find the answer to this mystery in the future." As far as what can be observed, we do know that the First Law of Thermodynamics tells us that neither matter nor energy are created or destroyed by any natural means. The big bang story is in direct conflict with this law, requiring a change in one of the most basic and proven laws of science.
- Argument to the Future / Escape to the Future: occurs when a conclusion is supported by evidence that will "surely" be discovered in the future. This is a variation of appeal to false prophecy. Often, this will take the form of stating that science will discover the solution to a certain problem with a favored theory.
- Escape Via Ignorance: occurs when a case cannot be made rationally, but it is asserted that other people could or that there is evidence, but the debater just doesn't happen to know what it is. EXAMPLE "I don't know the Bible, but, if I did, there are verses in there that prove my point, I am sure."
- Logical Fallacy of Argumentum Ex Culo: occurs when someone uses any of the various forms of making things up or lying.
- Logical Fallacy of Blind Obedience / Blind Authority / Team Player: occurs when someone does something or encourages someone else to do something that they know to be wrong and justifies it with an appeal to blind obedience. EXAMPLE Thomas Bouchard: "Academics, like teenagers, sometimes don’t have any sense regarding the degree to which they are conformists." Thomas Bouchard is correct, and the blind obedience to the group-think is not without reason. They do so to protect their careers.
- Logical Fallacy of False Accusation / Finding a Fault Where None Exists / False Conflict / False Error: occurs when a problem is alleged but no evidence proves that the problem exists. This problem could be wrong-doing, fault, error, fallacy, inconsistency, or anything else. See Fallacy Abuse. EXAMPLE Sandy: "There are errors in the Bible." Rocky: "Name one." Sandy: "There are thousands of them." Another way that this comes up is that Sandy will name an alleged error. Then, Rocky will explain why it is not an error. Sandy will either dogmatically and irrationally defend his position that this is an error or will jump to another. When Rocky explains the arbitrary assumptions that are needed for the second false conflict or error, Sandy will bring a third. This can continue indefinitely with a person who doesn't like what God says through the Bible.
- Argument from Omniscience: occurs when a claim is made that could not possibly be known. The reason this is a fallacy is that only God is omniscient. Often these arguments from omniscience take the form of a universal negative. It would be an argument from omniscience to claim that the omniscient God of the Universe cannot reveal things that cannot be known by any other means. EXAMPLE “We know that evolution (meaning molecules-to-man) happened.” This is a statement about the past that cannot be observed, and the claim is an argument from omniscience. FALLACY ABUSE Roxanne: "Every person is aware of God, but some people refuse to acknowledge Him." Sandra: "You're claiming to be omniscient. You can't look into my mind. I really don't believe in God." Roxanne: "Christ reveals that those who love darkness are the ones who won’t come to the Light, Who is to Jesus. Christ reveals that those who label themselves as Atheists know that God exists but that they refuse to acknowledge Him. For someone to claim that they know something about history that is in conflict with what God is telling us through Scripture is an argument from omniscience fallacy. Bill Nye even claimed to be able to go back in time. To claim that God can't, or doesn't, reveal things to His people is to claim to know the inner spiritual experience of every person who has ever lived. God knows that, but I doubt that you know that."
- Logical Fallacy of Universal Negative: occurs when an assertion is made that something does not exist. That is a claim that something doesn't exist anywhere in the material realm or the spiritual realm in any sense. It is a universal claim. It is impossible to prove that dark matter or dark energy do not exist, since they cannot be tested. They are mathematical concepts developed as an ad hoc rescuing mechanism for the big bang story. It is impossible to prove that there is no spiritual realm without first having a way to test the spiritual realm. Atheism claims that God doesn't exist. Agnostics make an even more irrational claim. They claim that no one ever has had a spiritual experience, that no one has ever had a personal relationship with Christ where Christ leads them moment-by-moment, or that no one anywhere can know anything about spiritual things. This type of universally negative claim is always irrational despite the complaints of those who call themselves Naturalists, Materialists, and Atheists. The reason that it is a fallacy is that one would have to be all-knowing or receive divine revelation to make such an assertion. And, indeed, divine revelation is the only way to logically posit a universal negative. God says, "There is not a just human being on the Earth who does good and doesn't sin." There are many things that can be proven not to exist in a non-universal way. For instance, you may be able prove that you don't have Rolls Royce in their garage. EXAMPLE "God does not exist." EXAMPLE "There is no evidence for God." EXAMPLE Bill Nye, debating against Creation Science: "The idea that there is a higher power that has driven the course of events in the Universe and our own existence is one that you cannot prove or disprove."
- As Far As Anyone Knows Fallacy: occurs when the phrase (or equivalent) is used to present a premise on which a conclusion will be based. This is very similar to the best in field fallacy except that it assumes personal omniscience. It assumes that the person guilty of the fallacy is fully aware of what everyone in the world knows. That being said, it is a silly thing to say, but people get used to saying silly things. As with many claims, a good question would be, “How do you know that to be true?” Then just keep asking until you either get to something solid or you find out that the phrase is just being used as a figure of speech that means nothing. EXAMPLE “As far as anyone knows, no one has ever received a vision from God.” How about saying, “As far as I know.” That would be more accurate.
- Proving a Negative Fallacy / Negative Proof Fallacy: occurs when a claim is made (without Divine revelation) that something does not to exist anywhere, at any time, or in any realm. This is known as a universal negative. One of the problems of proving a universal negative is that it would require one of two things: personal omniscience (knowing everything) or Divine revelation. It is possible to prove that something doesn’t exist in a certain realm (say the material realm) at a certain time (say right now) and in a certain place. “There is no cereal in my bowl here.” That is not a fallacy. There is a formal way, known as modus tollens, to prove a negative: If God reveals that there is not a just person on Earth, then there is not a just person on Earth. God reveals that there is not a just person on Earth. Therefore, there is not a just person on Earth. On the other hand, Bertrand Russell told a famous teapot story about a teapot floating somewhere in space—you can’t prove that it isn’t true. Unfortunately, Russell used the teapot story to justify a fallacy of an argument from ignorance and a universal negative claiming there is no God. Russell’s irrationality goes something like this: “It is impossible to prove a universal negative. To say that God doesn’t exist would be to commit a universal negative. Since the proposition that claims the non-existence of God cannot be proven, it is therefore true.” That is an argument from ignorance fallacy. Funny how religious Atheism makes intelligent people foolish. The proving a negative fallacy is committed when an attempt is made to justify dogmatic statements of disbelief or skepticism. It is a fallacy of closed-mindedness. EXAMPLE “There is no God.” EXAMPLE “Science proves that there is no God.” EXAMPLE “The Biblical account of Creation is untrue.” We would need an eye-witness. EXAMPLE “The Biblical account of the Flood is untrue.” Actually, this could be shown to be untrue if there were absolute evidence in geology that the Flood didn’t happen. The evidence in geology, however, supports the Biblical account of the global flood to such an extent that willful ignorance is required for anyone to deny it.
- Claim of Unknowables: occurs when it is claimed that something or someone is universally unknowable. EXAMPLE Bill Nye arguing against Creation science: “The idea that there is a higher power that has driven the course of events in the Universe and our own existence is one that you cannot prove or disprove. And this gets into this expression, Agnostic. You can’t know.” Bill has correctly defined the philosophy of Agnosticism as originally coined by T.H. Huxley. It is not a statement of lack of knowledge. It is a statement that claims infinite knowledge of a specific kind. It claims to know the inner spiritual experiences of every person who has ever lived. It claims to know that every person who has ever claimed to have a personal experience with Christ, to be led by Him, to be taught by Him, to be comforted by Him, to have sensed Him in many ways; it is a claim that every one of these people is lying, deceived in some way, or crazy. Bill Nye is claiming to know all about this. Wouldn’t you like to ask him to demonstrate the method by which he has such amazing familiarity? Roxanne: “God reveals to me, through the Bible, that there was a great worldwide flood about 4,500 years ago, and geology shows evidence for this as well. God speaks through the physical evidence to confirm the Biblical account.” Sandra: "You can’t know that God is speaking to you through Scripture and through the Creation.” Roxanne: “What makes you think so?” In reality, those who believe in no-God are actually taught to avoid disclosing their position. What Sandra would be more likely to do is to try to ask question after question of Roxanne, looking for something where Roxanne can’t answer. By using this tactic, Sandra is committing the failure to state, argument from ignorance, and shotgun fallacies.
- Logical Fallacy of Presupposition: occurs when thinking is used that presupposes conclusions into the statements without first showing those statements to be true. A presupposition is rarely stated. It is just considered to be true without challenge or critical thinking. If there is an attempt to prove it, then it is not a presupposition. Presupposition tend to be hidden, unspoken, or else inserted into language that is unlikely to be challenged (in the case of grammatical presupposition).
- Irrelevant Purpose Fallacy: occurs when it is assumed that something is not true because it has not fulfilled its supposed purpose, but the supposed purpose was never the real purpose. EXAMPLE "Total equality of outcomes has not been achieved in this society, so we need radical change." Total equality of outcomes was never the purpose. Equality of opportunity is an unrealistic purpose because of differences in people and environments. Freedom for each person to do the very best they can was the purpose, though that has been limited considerably in an effort to make all outcomes the same. EXAMPLE “If a good God created the world, then the world would be perfect and there would be no problems. The world is not perfect and it has many problems. Therefore, a good God didn’t create it.” This one is bit more subtle. The purpose is implied by innuendo rather than being stated plainly. This argument presupposes that God’s purpose was to create a world that is perfect, complete, and without any problems. In the end, that is probably pretty close to God’s ultimate purpose that will be accomplished at the end of the Ages of the Ages. However, His purpose right now is to find a group of people who will be willing to yield themselves to His Love completely so that He can form them into His Image and Likeness. Everything that He shows us through Scripture tells about the steps that He has taken to make this happen and the yet unfulfilled prophesies are about what He will do in the future to finish the work.
- Propositional Fallacy: occurs when an error is made in a compound proposition. A proposition is a truth claim statement. A compound proposition makes more than one claim but joins the claims into a single claim using words like “and,” “or,” “not,” “only if,” or “if and only if.” If the truth values that are proposed are not consistent with the joining words, then the propositional fallacy has been committed. Affirming the disjunct, affirming the consequent, and denying the antecedent are all propositional fallacies.
- Thompson Invisibility Syndrome: occurs when a frame-of-reference (worldview / paradigm / fake-reality) acts as a filter to make things and persons outside that frame of reference psychologically invisible. EXAMPLE Sandra: “It isn’t reasonable to say that God reveals things to you by Divine revelation.” Roxanne: “What principle of logic is being violated?” Sandra: “This is the God fallacy. There is no God, so God cannot reveal anything to you by Divine revelation.” If we had seen this entire exchange, we would see that Sandra is trying to prove her conclusion of supposed non-existence of God. Now, Sandra has come full circle in her reasoning. The truth is that she has built a worldview that includes naturalism and materialism, both of which make the unsupported assertion of presupposed non-existence of God and the spiritual realm. Now, she has encountered a person who is being led by the Holy Spirit moment by moment, and it conflicts with her inner fake-reality. For this reason, she is fighting desperately to get rid of the conflicting information.
- Logical Fallacy of Presumption: occurs when evidence or a conclusion is presupposed or presumed even though it doesn't exist in the real world or isn't shown. Premises or conclusions are put forward based on presumption/presupposition. EXAMPLE Sandy: “You are a fundamentalist Christian, Roxanne, and you say that man was created 6 days after the universe was. There is absolutely no evidence for this; rather there is a plethora of evidence for evolution, which you choose to ignore. [Roxanne probably uses logical fallacies to ignore said things.] In light of this, you are being a moronic fundamentalist Christian.” Roxanne: “The ad hominem attack doesn't hide the fact that you have shown no support for your assertions. There is absolute evidence that God created the Heavens and the Earth in just six days. God is saying that He did it. Divine revelation proves it conclusively.” Sandy: “You can't claim Divine revelation. You are assuming revelation but it is just presupposition, so we are on equal ground.” Roxanne: “Please explain the process by which you determine that Divine revelation is presupposition.” Sandy: “I just don't believe it.”
- Grammatical Presupposition / Assumptive Language: occurs when presuppositions are hidden in language. Words and phrases such as "when," "whenever," "how," "why," "obviously," or "where" become tools to insert hidden presuppositions. EXAMPLE "Obviously, when we discovered that we are all stardust . . ." This phrase has three nested presuppositions hidden in the words: "obviously," "when," and "we discovered." This is irrational and one of the hypnotic methods that are used on you. It works by overloading your ability to process information and to attempt to slip ideas into your innermost mind without your awareness.
- Arbitrary Thinking: occurs when any reasoning is based on random choice or personal whim, rather than any reason or system. A claim is made, but there is no reason for the claim. This is the same, or very close to the same, as the unsupported assertion fallacy. EXAMPLE "Evolution is science." This statement doesn't prove anything. The word, "science" must be defined. The word, "evolution," must be defined as either unobservable molecules-to-man or observable changes in living things. The word has no meaning that is useful for such the discussion if it is defined as meaning both, since one is disputed and the other is not disputed. In addition, reason has to be given for saying that evolution is science.
- Reversible Logic: occurs when an argument is put forward as a reason to believe a conclusion, but that argument can be reversed and used as a reason not to believe the same conclusion. EXAMPLE Sandy: "You are an idiot. Evolution is a scientific fact. All the research points to evolution. There is no evidence for Creation." Rocky: "The problem with your reasoning is that it is reversible because it is arbitrary. You didn't really bring any reason to believe. Let me show you what I mean. I am aware that what I am now going to say is irrational, but I'm only saying it to reflect what you just said and show that it is arbitrary, therefore irrational. 'You are an idiot. Creation is a scientific fact. All the research points to Creation. There is no evidence for molecules-to-man evolution.'" Note how Rocky reversed Sandy's logic. Neither one brought any evidence.
- Floating Abstraction Fallacy: occurs when a conclusion is drawn from a concept that is disconnected from reality. Classes, where tests must be taken and passed, are good for developing and hardening this type of fallacy in the minds of students. A floating abstraction is not directly connected to anything that can be observed or sensed in any way, though observations or real research may be used to defend them. They are abstractions that are distinct from the actual observations, from material reality. Leonard Peikoff: “. . . it is a memorized linguistic custom representing in the person's mind a hash made of random concretes, habits, and feelings that blend imperceptibly into other hashes which are the content of other, similarly floating abstractions." EXAMPLE The Big-Bang-Billions-of-Years-No-Flood-Molecules-to-Man story EXAMPLE Atheism EXAMPLE Agnosticism
- Logical Fallacy of Proof by Implied Unsupported Assertion / Implied Outright Lie: occurs when making the assertion directly would be unacceptable, but making it by innuendo allows a way out if called on the tactic. By using innuendo, it is possible to sometimes tell a very bold outright lie without being detected. EXAMPLE Bill Nye, arguing against Creation Science: "Ken Ham and his followers have this remarkable view of a worldwide flood that somehow influenced everything that we see in nature." This was a verbal tactic, a logical fallacy of proof by implied unsupported assertion or implied assertion contrary to fact (outright lie), that Bill Nye wove into his messages throughout his 2014 debate with Ken Ham. This is a nested fallacy, stacking more than one fallacy in only a few words, a practice that makes it more difficult to sort out the fallacy. The phrase, "Ken Ham and his followers," repeated in various forms throughout the debate, has the purpose of painting anyone who believes what God says through the Bible as being a very small band of renegades who are following Ken Ham. It paints Ken Ham as a cult leader. The phrase, "this remarkable view," gives the impression of weirdness to the view that there was a worldwide flood, something that is very difficult to miss in geology. The evidence for this flood is overwhelming. The remarkable view is the currently held paradigm that the flood didn't occur and that the sedimentary rocks were somehow formed over vast quantities of time. This was followed by a straw man fallacy in the phrase, "of a worldwide flood that somehow influenced everything that we see in nature," is an outright lie that is stated presumptively. Bill Nye is using the logical fallacy of extension, that is, exaggerating in order to make the Biblical account seem to be absurd. You can't tell it yet, since Bill very cleverly planted the seeds of his arguments early in these very vague terms. Later in the debate, he continues to build on the same idea until he finally (much later in the debate) says that the Bible claims that the flood affected the stars. This is an amazing stretch, even for Bill Nye.
- Spiritual Fallacy / Spiritual Excuse: occurs when any fallacy is committed that relates to the spiritual realm. EXAMPLE Sandra: “There is no spiritual realm.” Roxanne: “What makes you think that’s a true statement?” Sandra: “Science proves it.” Roxanne: “Can you explain the steps to the repeatable experiment by which I can prove that there is no spiritual realm?” In denying the spiritual realm without evidence, Sandra commits that spiritual fallacy. EXAMPLE Sandy: "There is no good and evil. There is no right and wrong. There is no truth and error. All of these are relative and each person must decide these for himself or herself.” This statement implies that Sandy knows all about the spiritual realm. He may even be claiming that there is no spiritual realm, which is a claim that he is omniscient. EXAMPLE Sometimes, spiritism is mistaken for spirituality. EXAMPLE Sometimes, arbitrary assumptions are claimed to trump Divine revelation in science. This assumes no spiritual authority exists and it assumes supernatural knowledge in certain selected humans who agree with the person making the claim. EXAMPLES Other examples would include claiming that Divine revelation doesn’t happen, creating special rules of logic that only apply to spiritual entities, experiences, concepts, etc.
- I Wish I Had a Magic Wand / Feigned Powerlessness: occurs when it is asserted or implied that there is nothing that can be done in cases where there is something that can be done. Note that there are times when a certain person cannot help. There are times when someone should not help. However, this fallacy only applies when someone can help but claims that they cannot help. EXAMPLE Sandra: “I would like to help you, but I just can’t this week. [Sandra could help, but she doesn't like the person who asked her to help.]” SCRIPTURE Proverbs 3:27: “Do not withhold good from those to whom it is due, when it is in your power to act.”
- Pious Fraud: occurs when the end is said to justify the means. EXAMPLE International Planned Parenthood Federation: "The federation estimates that of 500,000 annual maternal deaths, complications from unsafe abortion account for approximately 70,000, or 13 per cent." No source is given for these figures, and mostly it is impossible to get these statistics. Pro-abortionists used the number, 5,000-10,000 deaths yearly in the U.S. due to illegal abortions prior to Roe v Wade. They later admitted that this was a useful number to win the court case when the actual number was 39 deaths. EXAMPLE In opposition to the Ark Encounter in Kentucky, anti-Bible activists are launching a campaign of disinformation, even claiming that the amusement park is being built with public funds. In reality, any tourist attraction can apply for incentives that will eventually give them a portion of the State sales tax that they collect. For those who have an anti-Bible mindset, lying in this way is justified if it makes it harder to build the amusement part with a Noah’s Ark theme.
- Logical Fallacy of False Open-Mindedness: occurs when open-mindedness is claimed while also refusing to look at evidence supporting conclusions that differ from what is currently believed. This is a form of lie. Often, this false open-mindedness is used as evidence against any competing ideas or claims. The fact is that no one is open-minded to things outside their deep-rooted concept of reality. Each of us has such a thing, call it a paradigm, worldview, or world-perception, it is a fake-reality that seems more real to us that real reality. So, open-mindedness doesn't really exist. We are open-minded to things that don't violate our fake-realities too much. EXAMPLE Bill Nye arguing against Creation science: "If you could find evidence of that, my friends, you could change the world.” "There is not a single place in the Grand Canyon where the fossils of one type of animal cross over into the fossils of another. In other words, when there is a big flood on the Earth, you would expect drowning animals to swim up to a higher level. Not any one of them did. Not a single one where the fossils of one type of animal cross over into the fossils of another. In other words, when there is a big flood on the Earth, you would expect drowning animals to swim up to a higher level." Throughout the debate, Bill Nye tried to make a case for message control and censorship of anything related to Creation science. He implied that anyone who doesn't just blindly accept the Big-Bang-Billions-of-Years-No-Flood-Molecules-to-Man story cannot be a scientist. He implied that those who don't believe this sacred cow story are dangerous to the future of America and the world. He implied that no one ought to examine the facts concerning Creation science or God. He stated that you can't know God, which would imply that Bill is omnicient. Yet, Bill tried to imply that he is open minded. Then, he said that his mind could be changed, but he brought fallacy-ridden examples of things that would change his mind. This is one of those, since fossils are found out of place all the time, but Bill doesn't change his mind.
Last updated: Oct, 2014
Logical Fallacy of Ipse dixit /Just Because Fallacy / Trust Me / Mother Knows Best Fallacy / Because I Said So / You'll See
Logical Fallacy of Unsupported Assertion / Alleged Certainty / Appeal to Common Sense / Bare Assertion Fallacy / Unprovable Statement / Groundless Claim
Secret Knowledge Fallacy
Autistic Certainty Fallacy
Logical Fallacy of Assertion Contrary to Fact / Counterfactual Fallacy / Lie / Untruth
Big Lie Technique / Staying on Message
Logical Fallacy of the Outright Lie / Total Lie
Logical Fallacy of the Bold-Faced Lie / Bald-Faced Lie
Appeal to Confidence
Logical Fallacy of Hypothesis Contrary to Fact / Argumentum Ad Speculum / speculative fallacy /
Logical Fallacy of False Prophecy
Argument to the Future / Escape to the Future
Escape Via Ignorance
Logical Fallacy of Argumentum Ex Culo
Logical Fallacy of Blind Obedience / Blind Authority / Team Player
Logical Fallacy of False Accusation / Finding a Fault Where None Exists / False Conflict / False Error
Argument from Omniscience
Logical Fallacy of Universal Negative
As Far As Anyone Knows Fallacy
Proving a Negative Fallacy / Negative Proof Fallacy
Claim of Unknowables Fallacy
The Logical Fallacy of Presupposition/Assumptive Thinking
Irrelevant Purpose Fallacy
Thompson Invisibility Syndrome
Logical Fallacy of Presumption
Grammatical Presupposition / Assumptive Language
Floating Abstraction Fallacy
Logical Fallacy of Proof by Implied Unsupported Assertion / Implied Lie
Spiritual Fallacy / Spiritual Excuse
I Wish I Had a Magic Wand Fallacy / Feigned Powerlessness
Logical Fallacy of False Open-Mindedness
Encyclopedia of Logical Fallacies
Presumptions, Bare Assertions, and Lies
Toons & Vids
Fallacies of Presumptions, Bare Assertions, and Lies (using no evidence at all)
Fallacies of Flawed Evidence
Fallacies of Limiting Presuppositions
Fallacies of Contradiction
Fallacies of Comparison
Fallacies of Choice
Fallacies of Cause
Fallacies of Circular Reasoning
Fallacies of Non Sequitur
Fallacies of Invalid Form
Fallacies of Ambiguity
Relevance Fallacies of Authority
Relevance Fallacies of Emotion
Relevance Fallacies of the Source: Person, Organization, Book, etc.
Relevance Fallacies of Pressure
Relevance Fallacies of Distraction/Misdirection
Fallacies of Omission
Tactics and Mind Games
Faulty Conclusions that Affect Future Reasoning
Answer to Critic
Answer to Critic
Appeal to Possibility
Argument to the Future
Love Between a Man and Woman
Righteousness & Holiness
Proof by Atheism
Scriptures About Marriage
The Reason for Rejecting Truth
Witness on the Internet
Flaky Human Reasoning
How Do You Know?
The Real Purpose of the Church
The Real Purpose of Life
From Glory to Glory
REAL Faith--What it IS & IS NOT
REAL Love--What it IS & IS NOT
How to be Led by God
How to Witness
Wisdom: Righteousness & Reality
Holiness & Mind/Soul
Redemption: Free From Sin
Stories Versus Revelation
Circular Reasoning-Who is Guilty?
How Can We Know Anything?
Mind Designed to Relate to God
Answers for the Confused
Fossil Record Says: "Creation"
Avoid These Pitfalls
Public School's Religion
Public School Failures
How can we know anything about anything?
That's the real question